Interfaces in java

An interface is a reference type in Java. It is similar to class. It is a collection of abstract methods. A class implements an interface, thereby inheriting the abstract methods of the interface. Along with abstract methods, an interface may also contain constants, default methods, static methods, and nested types. Method bodies exist only for… Read More »


Encapsulation is one of the four fundamental OOP concepts. The other three are inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction. Encapsulation in Java is a mechanism of wrapping the data (variables) and code acting on the data (methods) together as a single unit. In encapsulation, the variables of a class will be hidden from other classes, and can be… Read More »

Abstraction Method in Java

As per dictionary, abstraction is the quality of dealing with ideas rather than events. For example, when you consider the case of e-mail, complex details such as what happens as soon as you send an e-mail, the protocol your e-mail server uses are hidden from the user. Therefore, to send an e-mail you just need to type… Read More »


Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. The most common use of polymorphism in OOP occurs when a parent class reference is used to refer to a child class object. Any Java object that can pass more than one IS-A test is considered to be polymorphic. In Java, all Java… Read More »


In the previous chapter, we talked about superclasses and subclasses. If a class inherits a method from its superclass, then there is a chance to override the method provided that it is not marked final. The benefit of overriding is: ability to define a behavior that’s specific to the subclass type, which means a subclass… Read More »

Inheritance in Java

Inheritance can be defined as the process where one class acquires the properties (methods and fields) of another. With the use of inheritance the information is made manageable in a hierarchical order. The class which inherits the properties of other is known as subclass (derived class, child class) and the class whose properties are inherited… Read More »

Java Inner classes

In this chapter, we will discuss inner classes of Java. Nested Classes In Java, just like methods, variables of a class too can have another class as its member. Writing a class within another is allowed in Java. The class written within is called the nested class, and the class that holds the inner class is… Read More »

Exceptions Handling in Java

An exception (or exceptional event) is a problem that arises during the execution of a program. When an Exception occurs the normal flow of the program is disrupted and the program/Application terminates abnormally, which is not recommended, therefore, these exceptions are to be handled. An exception can occur for many different reasons. Following are some scenarios where… Read More »

Files and I/O Handling In Java

The package contains nearly every class you might ever need to perform input and output (I/O) in Java. All these streams represent an input source and an output destination. The stream in the package supports many data such as primitives, object, localized characters, etc. Stream A stream can be defined as a sequence… Read More »

How To Create Methods in Java?

A Java method is a collection of statements that are grouped together to perform an operation. When you call the System.out.println() method, for example, the system actually executes several statements in order to display a message on the console. Now you will learn how to create your own methods with or without return values, invoke a… Read More »